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Roses for South Florida
John McLaughlin* &
If you wish to have roses as part of your Miami-Dade landscape, and yearn
to put away the spray can and grow plants that still retain most of their
foliage throughout the summer, these roses are for you.
Many of the roses discussed below will grow into substantial shrubs (up
to 8-10' in height and width) given the climate of South Florida, and once
established are far more drought tolerant than modern roses.
They will flower prolifically throughout the year (particularly if
often with the most enticing fragrances, and if not offering the stunning color
range of modern hybrid tea roses, display subtle variations in tints and
shading. Often the blooms are of
more than one hue and can change with time and temperature on the same plant,
giving these roses an elusive charm of their own.
For landscapers they offer not only blooms with a color palette that can
easily meld with other shrubs, but also frequent flushes of new foliage (often
attractively wine colored when young) that eventually mature into leaves in
shades ranging from lustrous dark greens to lighter apple green. They should be
evaluated for South Florida locations where a hibiscus, oleander or large ixora
might otherwise be considered. This brief guide to growing and propagating
“heirloom” roses for South Florida concentrates, for the
most part, on Chinas, Teas, plus a few Noisette and Bourbon roses.
All of these roses originated from crosses with Rosa chinensis, a
rose that grows wild in Western China and has probably been in cultivation in
China for more than a thousand years. When
R. chinensis (in the form of various sports) was brought to Western
Europe at the end of the 18th century, it was the most significant
event in the development of the rose. The
roses grown in Europe up till that time bloomed once, a few at most twice each
year. These introductions from
China however, were repeat bloomers, and it is this trait that permitted rose
breeders to develop the modern repeat blooming roses now so common in gardens
throughout the world.
The original species China rose (R. chinensis spontanea) is a
large, slightly scandent, single flowered shrub, which grows wild in
Western China. From it arose the four main cultivated varieties that were
first introduced into Western Europe (‘Slater’s Crimson’, ‘Old Blush’,
‘Hume’s Blush Tea-scented China’ and ‘Park’s Yellow Tea-scented
China’). Of these only ‘Old
Blush’ is now commonly grown, though all of them or their descendants have
been used to develop a whole panoply of roses over the last two centuries.
The Tea roses also originated in China and are considered to be crosses
between R. chinensis and R. gigantea, and are referred to
botanically as R. x odorata. R.
gigantea is, as its name suggests, a large plant (over 40') growing on the
forested mountain slopes of Burma (Myanmar) and Southwest China, where it
receives abundant summer monsoonal rains and plentiful sun.
Bearing in mind the climate in which the above species were first found,
it is not surprising that Chinas, and especially Teas, did poorly when brought
to Northern Europe.
Two other groups of roses, the Bourbons and Noisettes, can perform well
in the climate of South Florida. The
Bourbon roses arose from seed collected from a natural hybrid between a China
(almost certainly ‘Old Blush’) and the pink autumn damask rose (R.
damascena var. semperflorens) on the French island of Bourbon (now
known as Reunion) in the Indian Ocean. The
Noisettes were originally developed in South Carolina using seed produced from
Champney’s Pink Cluster, obtained by crossing ‘Old Blush’ with the musk
rose, R. moschata. To John
Champney, the gardener and plantation owner who made the original cross, must be
accorded the distinction of being the first gardener to introduce into a
cultivated Western hemisphere rose the genetic propensity of the China roses’s
for repeat blooming. However, it
was the roses raised from the seeds of this union by Philippe Noisette, a
Charleston nursery owner, that produced the plants we now recognize as Noisette
It was, as mentioned above, the desirable traits they offered to rose
breeders that secured the Teas and Chinas importance when crossed with old
European roses. As plants in their own right they found far greater success
in the warmer Mediterranean areas of Europe, South Africa, Australasia and
California and the American South. It
is worth drawing attention to the fact that many of these roses have been
“rescued” from old home sites, church yards and cemeteries, and are
therefore survivors, having been able to thrive over many decades without
particular care. There are groups
active (for example in Texas and California) that scout rural parts for old,
forgotten roses, and some of these are now commercially available.
The old European roses (e.g. Albas, Gallicas and Centifolias) do not
perform well in South Florida.
One group of old roses that is particularly well suited to South Florida
are the so called Bermuda roses, which do well on the pervasive limestone rock
that makes up the island’s land mass. These
roses are of uncertain parentage, but were probably originally brought to
Bermuda from England and Europe, where subsequently their identity was lost. They appear to be of China stock for the most part.
SELECTION: OWN-ROOT OR GRAFTED
It is essential when growing roses in South and Central Florida to use
plants grafted onto a R. fortuniana
rootstock. This species produces a
root system that enables the plant to survive the stresses induced by the
combination of sandy soil, heat, and the presence of a variety of nematodes
that attack the roots of roses. Nematodes
tend to favor sandy soils. Their
numbers can be reduced by organic material incorporated into the soil and
applied on the surface as mulch. If
you suspect that nematodes could be a problem, you can submit soil samples for testing.
Many of the old garden roses described in this document will grow
successfully on their own roots, especially in areas of Miami - Dade where the
soil is not so sandy, such as the Rockdale limestone soil in the south of the
county. There are even a limited number of own-.root heirloom roses
that appear to be surviving on the sandy soils of Central
Florida. If you are in doubt as to your location, use grafted plants
and/or try some of the varieties listed below that have performed particularly
well on their own roots.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME CLASSES OF OLD ROSES
These roses range from small shrubs like ‘Le Vesuve’ and
which are suitable for planters, to larger specimens such as ‘Cramoisi
Superiuer’ and ‘Mutabalis’ (the “Butterfly Rose”), which will easily
reach 7-9' in either direction. New
flushes of growth are usually a particularly attractive wine color at first,
maturing to a lustrous green. When full
grown they are generally small to medium plants, though in the climate of South
Florida some can grow to 8-10' in height and width.
They often produce light, twiggy growth and this, along with any dead
wood, should be removed as necessary to permit maintenance and keep the bush
Blooms, which can be single, semi-double to double, are not particularly
spectacular on an individual basis, but the overall effect of a bush in bloom is
most attractive. A well-maintained ‘Old
Blush’ in full bloom has been likened to an azalea in its visual appeal.
Expect particularly good blooms from late fall through early Spring, with
more sporadic bloom through the Summer months. Colors range from creamy white
through pink blends to crimson reds.
As a class, these roses are particularly well suited to South Florida,
well able to take the heat and humidity of Summer, retaining most of their
foliage. The Teas tend to be large,
upright growing plants often narrower at the base, with some growing as large
climbing roses. The expanding flower buds
have that classic, slender, pointed, cup shape, opening to give double to
semi-double blooms, often with longer, higher petals in the center.
The pastel shades of the blooms are the essence of an old-fashioned rose
garden. They range from pale yellows to
blush pinks and carmine, often with one shade delicately suffused with another.
To this can be added their light sweet fragrance, and the attractive nodding habit of the flowers
Most of this group of roses are loosely scandent to climbing, and need
some kind of support. They
are ideal for covering a chain-link fence, a garden arch, or pergola, especially
where a softer, more restrained element is required in the landscape.
Noisettes produce small to medium blooms in clusters, shaded
cream through yellow to pink, possessing a light, spicy fragrance.
As with other climbing roses, increased blooming can be induced if the
canes are arched, before being tied down, with the tip of the cane lower than
the point at which the cane is bent.
Of the roses presently under review, this class of roses is probably the
least well adapted for South Florida. There are, however, some that are sufficiently
vigorous to warrant space in the landscape. Bourbons are grown principally for
their extremely attractive, open, semi-double to double flowers. These are
produced in shades ranging from light creamy pink to crimson and purple-reds.
Many of these roses have the added attraction of a pervasive sweet, spicy
PREPARATION AND PLANTING
Select a site that receives at least 8 hours of full sun per day, well
away from competition with tree roots. It
is best if the plants obtain plenty of early morning sun to permit the foliage
to dry off. If planting next to a
driveway or path, set back at least 3-4' since many of these roses will grow
into large shrubs with sharp prickles. All
of these roses can be planted directly in the ground, though some of the smaller
varieties are appropriate for planters or a raised bed.
If drainage is a problem, plant on a berm or construct a raised bed.
Be aware that these are roses that could well last many years in the
landscape, so materials used to retain a raised bed should be durable.
After removing surface rubble, a hole should be dug that is at least 3-4'
in diameter and no more than 12-18" deep with sloping sides (like a soup
plate). On rocky sites it may be
worthwhile if installing a number of plants to contract this task to somebody
with mechanical digging equipment. If
a container-grown plant is to be installed, place it in the planting hole about
½" above soil level to allow for settling, then backfill with a soil high
in organic matter. Bare-root roses
should be soaked overnight (roots) before planting and placed in the hole with
the roots spread over a dome of soil, and then backfilled.
Do not use heavy muck soil as backfill - many of the soil-based potting
mixes can be used, with the addition of thoroughly rotted compost or Canadian
peat, bonemeal, dried blood and greensand. Alternatively,
mix the potting soil with one of the soil mixes specially formulated for roses
as per directions on the bag. After
planting, water in well. A slow-release
rose fertilizer may be broadcast around the base of the bush, but wait four to
six weeks before applying soluble fertilizers.
Apply a 3" covering of mulch (pine bark nuggets or shredded pine
bark) over the entire planting area, taking care not to place it right next to
Use a slow release rose fertilizer every 2 months. This can be supplemented with a foliar application of liquid rose
fertilizer (mainly for trace elements) every 4-6 weeks, or a trace element spray
such as Perk or Microplex every 3 months. Mineral deficiencies can be a particular problem on
limestone-based soils, especially in southern-most Miami-Dade and the Keys.
Foliar applications will be necessary to provide these elements, as well
as soil drenches containing chelated iron.
Regularly inspect the covering of mulch and lightly rake if it becomes
compacted. As the mulch decomposes it
will need to be replaced, depending on the material used, every 6 -12 months.
Spraying these roses for disease control should not be necessary, except
those newly installed during the Summer or any that are still in small
containers. Blackspot in these latter instances could cause excessive
loss of foliage. The majority of
the roses listed are either resistant to blackspot or, when mature, rapidly
renew foliage lost to infection. A
more important problem can be balling of the blossoms in humid weather, and this
is often also associated with petal blight.
This tends to be more pronounced in those roses having tight double
A few insects can occasionally be a problem.
Aphids are a familiar pest of roses and, if necessary, can be controlled
with horticultural soap. Less
often thrips, big-legged bugs and leaf-footed bugs damage flower buds. The
latter two can also cause wilting of new growth.
On some roses cane borers can cause die-back, especially on freshly
pruned canes. The infested
canes should be cut back to a bud and sealed with a clear water-soluble glue.
Leaf-cutting bees remove neat semi-circular areas from leaf margins, but
are of no consequence for the health of the plant.
Unlike modern roses, the roses described here do not require major
pruning, indeed it is detrimental to most Tea roses.
Pruning should be limited to removal of dead canes, being especially
vigilant with those varieties more prone to die-back, and excessively twiggy
growth, as can occur especially with China roses.
Remove canes that rub against one another, and blind shoots that produce
no flowers. When pruning, make a
clean cut back to a newly emerging side shoot or a bud, and avoid leaving stubs.
Do not use wound sealer. If
correctly pruned the cut surface should callous over, and stimulate the
development of new growth. It is
advisable to deadhead most “heirloom” roses to forestall development of hips and increase bloom production.
Many old roses can be successfully propagated directly from stem
cuttings. Rooting of cuttings can
be done at any time of the year, though the best time is during late Fall when
temperatures and humidity have moderated and the risk of disease is reduced.
In addition, most of these roses will produce more growth flushes at this
time, as compared to the relative quiescence of summer, providing a greater
source of material for cutting. Before
taking cuttings fill as many 6" plant pots as needed with a fresh, light
potting mix (e.g. Pro-Mix, Metro Mix or Peters), then use a dibbler to
make a 3" deep x 1" wide cone shaped hole in the soil.
The resulting hole should then be filled with washed coarse builders
Take 6-8" cuttings, about the thickness of a pencil, from a plant
that has just finished flowering, and use the cuttings as soon as possible.
If the cut material cannot be used immediately, wrap wet paper towels
around the cut end and cover tightly with aluminum foil.
Tag the cut material if taken from more than one plant.
When ready to stick the cuttings follow these steps :
Remove the bottom of the stem just below a bud,
cutting at a 45 degree angle. Then
cut the top of the stem just above a complete leaf (one with 5 leaflets, or the
characteristic number for the cultivar).
Remove all but the topmost leaf from the stem.
Prune off any lateral shoots from the cutting stem, taking care not to
leave any stubs.
With a sharp knife remove two ¾ x c
inch strips of bark from opposite sides at the base of the stem. It is important to remove only the bark and not cut into the
wood. If it is easier make 3
or four lengthwise ½ - 1" incisions into the base of the cutting.
There is evidence, however, that removal of bark stimulates more vigorous
production of roots.
Dip the stripped end of the stem in rooting powder,
then place the cutting in the sand cone to a depth of 2".
Leave the cuttings in ample light but out of the
sun, and water only enough to keep the soil surface moist.
The cuttings may be misted if preferred until new
growth is apparent. The emergence
of the second set of new leaves indicates that the cutting has successfully
rooted. This should occur within
6-8 weeks. At this time the
pots can be moved to an area receiving some early morning sun, and as the
cuttings produce new shoots they can be gradually moved into full sun.
Plants can be set out in the landscape during late Spring, if it is not
excessively hot and dry, particularly vigorous varieties such as ‘Mrs. B.R.
Cant’, ‘Marie Van Houtte’, and ‘Cramoisi Superiuer’. Otherwise it is advisable to transplant the roses to 2
gallon pots and plant them in the Fall.
Roses can also be propagated by air layering, though this is not a
commonly used method. Plants
can also be grown from seed in those varieties that produce hips, but these will
differ from the parent plant in varying degrees.
With patience you may find a natural cross that is worth propagating
vegetatively as your own personal new variety of rose.
SELECTED LIST OF OLD ROSES FOR SOUTH FLORIDA
‘Old Blush’ (Parsons, 1793).
This is an upright plant to at least 4-5', with scattered prickles.
The blossoms are partially double and lilac-pink, with rosy-pink
splashes, the color deepening with more intense sun.
Flowers throughout the year, with the best production during the cooler
months, especially late Winter. Very
little fragrance under South Florida conditions. Definitely a rose for the beginner since it will survive with
little care. It is able to
withstand alkaline soil conditions, exhibiting fewer signs of mineral
deficiencies. With regular
applications of fertilizer, deadheading and pruning as required ‘Old Blush’
will produce an outstanding shrub. An
extremely attractive asset to any South Florida landscape when in full bloom.
‘Cramoisi Superior’ (Cocquerreau or Plantier, 1835 - seedling from R.
chinensis ‘Slaters Red Crimson’). This
rose will easily grow to more than 6' x 8' under South Florida conditions, and
it forms a vigorous, very healthy bush.
Numerous blossoms produced on and off throughout the year especially
during the Winter and early Spring. Blossoms
are cupped, double, and an intense crimson red, tinged with a lighter silvery
reverse. At certain times a
splash of white is noticeable near the center of the flower.
Blooms are very resistant to fading, even in the heat of Summer.
Two other red China roses are also well suited to South Florida, ‘Louis
Philippe’ (Guerin,1834) and ‘Archduke Charles’ (Lafay, 1825 - a seedling
of ‘Old Blush’). ‘Louis
Philippe’ has been widely grown in the Southern States, and was known in
Florida as the “cracker” rose. Red
China roses are difficult to distinguish at times because the flowers produced
by different cultivars are very similar.
‘Ducher’ (Ducher, 1869). ‘Ducher’
is small, upright rose to 3 -4' unique for Chinas in having lightly fragrant,
creamy white blossoms - an unusual color for this group of roses.
It is not as prodigious in bloom as the red China roses and appears to be
more prone to die-back under South Florida conditions.
‘Ducher’ responds well to regular pruning of dead wood and blind
‘Mutabalis’ (European introduction, 1896). Known
as the butterfly rose, it produces single flowers that change from buff yellow
to apricot, orange, pink to crimson, usually with all colors on the bush at the
same time. The plant will easily
grow to a height and width of 8 -10' and develops a stout trunk.
This is a rose that will take some light shade for part of the day,
though maximum flowering requires exposure to full sun.
‘Le Vesuve’ (Lafay, 1825).
This rose is medium sized and bears many prickles.
It grows to 4-5', with exquisite, tea shaped blooms shaded silvery-pink.
They are loosely double, nodding blooms that darken with age.
‘La Vesuve’ responds well to grafting onto x fortuniana rootstock to
produce a compact but bushy shrub.
‘Mrs B. R. Cant’ (B. R. Cant, 1901 - linked to Safrano à Fleur
Rouges). A very late Tea rose
introduction, ‘Mrs. B. R. Cant’ produces full, deep rose-pink, cabbage-like
blooms that fade to an attractive
silvery-pink (Figure 1). In
addition, blooms emit a pleasant, light tea fragrance, and are long lasting
(i.e., for an “old” rose), making them useful as cut flowers.
This is an extremely vigorous plant (Figure 2.) that will quickly grow to
8' x 10', and it is relatively drought tolerant once established, if well
1. ‘Mrs B. R. Cant’
2. ‘Mrs B. R. Cant’
‘Monsieur Tillier’ (Bernaix, 1891 - linked to Safrano à Fleur
Rouges). This is another late Tea
rose introduction that produces deep carmine double blossoms, fading to an
orange brick-red. The plant grows
vigorously upright to 8' x 5'.
‘Duchesse de Brabant’ (Bernède, 1857- linked to Caroline). Often referred to in the U.S. as the “Teddy Roosevelt”
rose, this Tea is not as vigorous as the two above, but is very attractive when
well maintained. The plant produces
numerous small, cupped, cabbage blooms
of a silvery salmon pink, that are sweetly fragrant, and are complemented by
bright apple green foliage. Has a
rather open growth habit, and foliage is sparse at times during the Summer
months; it will grow to a height of 3-4' with a similar width.
‘Frances Dubreuil’ (Dubreuil, 1894 - linked to ‘Souvenir de David
d’Angers’). This is the deepest
red Tea rose currently available, bearing deep velvety purplish red blooms. It repeat-blooms well, but is sometimes prone to dieback
under South Florida conditions. It
requires regular pruning which will restrict growth to about 4' x 3'.
‘Frances Dubreuil’ is a nice rose, though not particularly sturdy,
that responds well to care.
‘Marie Van Houtte’ (Ducher, 1871 - ‘Mme de Tartas’ x ‘Mme Falcot’).
This rose has creamy white to light yellow blooms with rosy-pink
suffusing the petal margins, becoming more evident as they age (Figs. 3 &
4). It forms a large,
vigorous, spreading plant that will easily grow to 6 - 7' with an equal spread.
Considered by Graham Stuart Thomas, one of the leading rosarians, to be
the most satisfactory of the Tea roses. If
you do not have room for Marie Van Houtte, consider ‘Mrs. Dudley Cross’
(Paul, 1907), a tea rose that produces very similar blooms, but is more
restrained in growth. This rose is
sometimes referred to locally as the ‘Key West Thornless’, and incorrectly
sold as ‘Helen Good.”
3. ‘Marie Van Houtte’
4. ‘Marie Van Houtte’
‘Mlle. Franziska Kruger’ (Nabonnand, 1879 - ‘Catherine Mermet’ x
‘General Schablikine’). Reliably
producing many very double, orangey pink blooms with a central green button,
this rose is very attractive (Figure 5.). In
humid weather, however, it can ball and develop blossom blight.
It will be necessary to prune out excess twiggy growth and regularly
remove canes exhibiting dieback to ensure a healthy, open plant.
5. ‘Mlle Franziska Kruger’
‘Mme Berkley’ (Bernaix Sons). This
rose produces a vigorous plant, always appears healthy, and regularly produces
somewhat knotted light salmon pink blooms.
It produces an open, spreading bush with healthy, dark green, lustrous
foliage. Expect growth to 6-7' for both
height and width.
‘Perle des Jardins’ (Levet, 1874 - seedling from ‘Mme Falcot’).
Displaying glowing canary yellow double blooms with a hint of orange in
the center (Figure 6), this is a wiry shrub that responds well to judicious
pruning. As with ‘Mlle Franziska
Kruger’, the blooms are susceptible to balling, so are at their most
attractive during late Winter and early Spring.
6. ‘Perle des Jardins’
‘Crépuscule’ (Dubreuil, 1904).
Classed as a climbing Tea-Noisette, it produces glowing blooms that are
deep orange colored on first opening and fade to a buff-apricot (Figure 7).
Blooms tend to rapidly discolor, but are quickly replaced on this very
vigorous plant. This rose
appreciates full sun and can be grown on a fence or pergola. On calcareous soils minor element nutritional deficiencies
may develop. Blooms on-and-off year
round, but expect at least one stunning display during the cooler, drier part of
‘Fellemberg’ (Fellemberg, 1835).
This is an open, vigorous shrub, well armed with prickles, that produces
clusters of bright, rosy crimson flowers in great profusion.
The plant requires support and is particularly well suited to growing
against an open fence.
‘Maréchal Neil’ (Pradel, 1864 - seedling of ‘Isabella Gray’). This is an outstanding climbing rose, ideally suited to the climate
of South Florida. It produces deep
golden yellow blooms that are full and globular, but with weak stems that allow
them to bend over. Since the plant
can climb up to 14' this “defect” permits a fuller appreciation of both the
visual and olfactory delights of this rose. Unfortunately it is not always readily available, and has
suffered recently with reports of unthrifty plants due to some stocks being
infected with a virus.
‘Souvenir de Malmaison’ (Béluse, 1843 - ‘Mme Desprez’ x Tea: ‘Devoniensis’?).
This rose is universally appreciated for its large, flat, open, quartered
blooms of a glowing pale flesh pink that become more cream colored as they age.
Blooms can ball and discolor in humid weather, and there is a somewhat
greater problem with blackspot. However,
no rose garden is complete without this outstanding rose which should eventually
form a 4 x 4' shrub.
‘Maggie’ (A found rose, W.C. Welch).
The identity of this rose is not known for certain, however it is at
present thought to resemble the Bourbon rose ‘Eugene E. Marlitt’.
Irrespective of it’s classification, this is a first-rate rose for
South Florida, bearing almost continuously blooms of a rich purplish-carmine
that are highly fragrant and fade resistant, even in the heat of Summer.
Growth is open, producing a sprawling, thorny shrub that will easily
reach 7' x 7'. Despite a tendency
to develop blackspot, it is sufficiently vigorous that this is not a major
‘Vincent Godsiff’ (derivation uncertain, possibly a China rose).
This is an easy to grow rose that blooms throughout the year, producing
bright pink to mauve blooms, almost garish compared to the more pastel shades of
the other roses described in this list. It
readily forms hips, so deadheading to increase blooming is necessary.
‘Vincent Godsiff’ will form a twiggy 4' x 4' bush.
‘Smith’s Parish’ (derivation unknown).
This rose is a curiosity that produces small, cupped, double white to
cream blooms, often conspicuously streaked with pink or red.
On odd occasions a single all red flower is produced.
Expect a 5' - 6' bush with small, dainty leaves.
This list of “old” roses is far from complete, but the plants
discussed should perform well in Miami-Dade County and other parts of South
Florida. They are presently being
grown in south Miami-Dade on Rockland limestone, and have proven themselves.
If you are able to grow any of them
on their own roots, emulate our predecessors by offering cuttings to friends and
neighbors so that more may enjoy these unfairly neglected plants.
B. C.. 1992. The old rose advisor.
Timber Press. Portland, OR. 400
L.. 1996. The organic rose garden.
Taylor Publishing, Dallas, TX. 210
C. G.. 2000. 100 old roses for the American garden. Workman Publishing, New York.
B.. 2000. For the love of roses in Florida and elsewhere.
Great Outdoors Publishing, St. Petersburg, FL. 120 pp.
H.. (ed.). 1996. The
Royal Horticultural Society plant guides: roses.
Dorling Kindersley, London. 160
G. S.. 1994. The Graham Stuart Thomas rose book.
John Murray Publishers, London. 385
O.. 1995. The Mitchell Beazley guide to old-fashioned roses.
Reed International Books, London.
G. M.. 2000. Roses in the southern garden. Antique Rose Emporium, Brenham, TX. 192 pp.
W. C.. 1990. Antique roses for the South. Taylor Publishing, Dallas, TX.
Robert J. Knight, Jr. (University of Florida - TREC, Homestead) provided
valuable reviews of this manuscript.
John McLaughlin is Program Assistant, Urban Horticulture; and Joe Garofalo is
Extension Agent, Commercial Ornamentals, Miami-Dade Cooperative Extension
is the removal of spent flowers from a plant before they go to seed, usually
to encourage further production of bloom.
or “old” refers to roses that were developed, for the most part, in the
scandent growth habit refers to plants that produce long flexible stems that
have a tendency to scramble over a given surface (bank or wall), but cannot
climb unless tied to a suitable support (tree, fence or trellis).
known as ‘Parson’s Pink China’ or ‘Old Monthly’.
from R. banksiea x R. laevigata (double white Bank’s rose and
Cherokee rose) and introduced from China by Robert Fortune in 1845.
variety of nematodes have been found to damage the roots of roses, notably
dagger (Xiphinema), spiral (Helicotylenchus), root lesion (Pratylenchus),
ring (Macroposthonia) and root knot (Meloidogyne).
damage is manifested as a decline over time causing fewer, paler leaves,
with stunted growth and poor flower production.
These symptoms may take 3 -4 years to develop in initially healthy
your local County Extension Office to receive a nematode soil testing kit.
authorities have categorized this as a Bourbon, however according to Graham
Stuart Thomas it is much closer in habit to ‘Old Blush’.
fragrance, which was originally likened to fresh tea leaves, gave rise to
the name “Tea Rose.”
class of rose, and to a lesser extent the Noisettes, are more susceptible to
blackspot than Tea and China roses.
For some of these plants, this means that regular spraying may be
required during the wet part of the year.
soils with a pH7.5, as in much of Miami-Dade, use a product
containing iron chelated as Fe-EDDHA, such as Sequestrene 138.
caused by the fungal pathogen Diplocarpon rosea, is the most common
disease of roses in Florida. If
absolutely necessary, use either propiconazole (Banner Max) or myclobutanil
(Systhane, Immunox) as a control.
British authors use the term heps rather than hips.
a rooting powder containing 0·8% 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA).
is the usually cited date of introduction to Western Europe, though it could
well have been earlier. A
rose almost certainly identical to ‘Old Blush’
was grown in China from the 10th Century.
rose used to be very popular as a bouttoniere.
little planted today, this rose was used extensively at the end of the 19th
Century for breeding purposes.
of Florida /Miami-Dade County Extension
SW 288th Street; Homestead. FL 33030-2932
(305) 248-3311 x 228; FAX (305) 246-2932